In our CyberWIKI we want to present and explain the most important terms and definitions in the context of PHYSICS.

10 Gigabit Ethernet
10 Gigabit Ethernet (10 GbitE) is an enhanced Ethernet technology that offers data transmission speeds of 10 gigabits per second (Gbps). It provides significantly faster communication between devices and is commonly used in data centers and enterprise networks. 10 GbitE supports both copper and fiber optic cables, delivering high bandwidth and improved network performance for bandwidth-intensive applications.
3rd Generation Partnership Project
The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is an international collaboration that develops global standards for mobile communication technologies. It defines specifications and standards for mobile networks, including 3G, 4G, and 5G. 3GPP ensures compatibility and interoperability among different network equipment and devices, facilitating seamless communication worldwide. Its work has been pivotal in the evolution and widespread adoption of mobile networks.
5G New Radio (NR) is the successor to the previous mobile technology standards GSM (2G), UMTS (3G) and LTE (4G). The development and standardization are carried out by the standardization organization 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). 5G was introduced in 2016 and started to be deployed globally in 2019. Development is in releases, with the latest released being Release 17 (2022) and Release 18 (5G Advanced) being approved (2023). 5G improves the performance of communications in terms of key performance indicators (KPIs): latency, data rate, error rate, range and mobility. 5G sets new standards in terms of data transmission speed, network capacity, response time, reliability and data security and enables real-time data communication for the first time. New technologies include the introduction of higher frequency bands (FR2) around 24 GHz (mmWave), multiple spatially distributed transmission through massive multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) antennas, beamforming with antenna arrays and multi-access edge computing (MEC). 5G is seen as a response to increasing data traffic around the world related to digitization, which is being driven by streaming, big data and the Internet of Things (IoT). These improvements and the better performance of 5G enable new applications such as IoT, autonomous driving or Industry 4.0.
6G is the sixth-generation cellular network standard currently under research and development. 6G networks will be able to use higher frequencies than 5G networks and deliver significantly higher capacity and lower latency. 6G might be using millimeter wave (mmWave) (30 to 300 GHz) and terahertz radiation (THz) (300 to 3000 GHz) for communication. The trend to higher frequencies also enables new features such as beam tracking or Joint Communication and Sensing (JCAS). The latter introduces radar capabilities to wireless networks to passively detect and localize objects in the environment.
AI | Artificial intelligence and Machine Learning (ML)
Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to the simulation of human intelligence in machines programmed to perform tasks that would normally require human intelligence. It is a broad field that encompasses various subfields including machine learning, natural language processing, computer vision, robotics, and expert systems. AI aims to develop intelligent systems that can perceive, think, learn and make decisions similar to humans, possibly even surpassing human capabilities.
Machine Learning (ML) is a subfield of AI that focuses on the development of algorithms and statistical models that allow computers to learn from data and make predictions or decisions. Rather than explicitly programming a machine to do specific tasks, ML algorithms allow machines to recognize patterns and relationships in data and make predictions or take action without being explicitly programmed. ML algorithms can be classified into supervised learning, unsupervised learning, and reinforcement learning categories based on the nature of the data and the learning process.

In summary, AI is a broader concept aimed at developing intelligent machines, while machine learning is a specific approach within AI that focuses on algorithms and models that enable machines to learn from data and make predictions or decisions.

Attack vectors
With regard to cyber security, the following attack vectors on the physical layer (PHY) of communication systems can be distinguished:
• Radio Jamming: Using a jammer to block or disrupt wireless communications by reducing the signal-to-noise ratio.
• Radio Sniffing: Eavesdropping on the signal and intercepting information at the PHY level.
• RF Spoofing: Sending out a fake signal masquerading as a real signal. This could also be used for a man-in-the-middle or relay attack.
AP | Workpackage
A work package helps explaining the structure of a project. By doing so it´s a self-contained service. Within a work package, every participants task and work frame is defined.
BS | Base station
A base station (BS) is a fixed communication station in wireless networks that acts as a central hub. It transmits and receives wireless signals, manages communication between mobile devices and the network, and performs functions such as signal transmission, reception, call management, network synchronization, and control. Base stations are essential for providing coverage, managing network resources, and facilitating seamless wireless communication.
Beamforming and directional antennas
Beamforming is a signal processing technique used in conjunction with antenna arrays for directional signal transmission or reception. The signal from each element in a phased array antenna experiences constructive or destructive interference at certain angles. Beamforming can be used on both transmit and receive to achieve spatial selectivity. Beamforming increases antenna directivity and signal transmission. A similar effect can be achieved with directional antennas, but the beam cannot be controlled electronically. This can increase the power transmitted in a desired direction to the receiver, or reduce interference from unwanted sources such as physical layer (PHY) attacks. The aim is to mitigate spoofing and sniffing attacks by pointing the antenna towards the trusted communication partner. As a result, the signal is very weak in all other directions and the attack surface of the wireless communication link is minimized.
CAAD | Connected and autonomous driving
Connected and autonomous driving uses wireless communication to enable new use cases such as:
– Vehicle platooning: These are dynamically formed vehicle platoons in which a leading vehicle transmits information to the vehicles that are part of the platoon.
– Advanced Driving: Both vehicles and Roadside Units (RSUs) can share data collected by sensors with vehicles in their vicinity. This allows the vehicles to dynamically coordinate their trajectories.
– Advanced sensors: Exchange of sensor data or video information between vehicles, pedestrians, infrastructure, etc.
– Remote Control: Remote control of a vehicle either by a human operator or a V2X server.
CAM | Cooperative Awareness Message
Cooperative Awareness Message (CAM) is a standardized message format used in Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS) for vehicular communication. CAM allows vehicles to exchange information with each other and with roadside infrastructure, promoting cooperative driving and enhancing road safety. By sharing data such as position, speed, and heading, CAM messages enable vehicles to be aware of the surrounding traffic environment, facilitating collision avoidance and cooperative maneuvers. CAM forms a crucial part of V2V and V2I communication systems in connected and cooperative mobility solutions.
C-ITS | Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems
Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems (C-ITS) integrate information and communication technologies in transportation to enhance safety, efficiency, and sustainability. C-ITS enables vehicles, infrastructure, and road users to communicate and share real-time information. It aims to improve safety through cooperative collision avoidance, enhance traffic efficiency by optimizing flow and route planning, promote environmental sustainability, and provide driver assistance and comfort. C-ITS applications include V2V, V2I, and V2X communication, with the goal of creating safer, more efficient, and sustainable transportation systems.
CSI | Channel State Information
CSI stands for Channel State Information. It refers to the information about the current state or condition of a communication channel in a wireless communication system. This information includes details such as signal strength, signal quality, interference levels, and other factors that affect the transmission of data over the channel. CSI is essential for various tasks in wireless communication systems, including channel estimation, adaptive modulation and coding, beamforming, and interference management. By analyzing the CSI, communication devices can optimize their transmission parameters and make informed decisions to improve the overall performance and reliability of the wireless communication system.
CSM | Colour Shift Modulation
Colour Shift Modulation (CSM) can refer to a technique or process used to modify or manipulate colors in a digital image or video. It involves altering the color values of individual pixels or groups of pixels to achieve desired visual effects. This modulation can be applied to adjust the hue, saturation, brightness, or other color attributes within an image or video sequence.
The exact implementation of Colour Shift Modulation may vary depending on the specific application or context. It could involve techniques such as color space conversions, lookup tables, color correction algorithms, or other image processing methods.
C-V2X | Cellular Vehicle-to-Everything
C-V2X (Cellular Vehicle-to-Everything) is a communication technology that enables vehicles to exchange information with other vehicles, infrastructure, pedestrians, and networks. It utilizes cellular networks to establish wireless connections and allows for real-time sharing of data related to location, speed, traffic conditions, and more. C-V2X has the potential to improve road safety, traffic efficiency, and enable new applications in the automotive industry. It is being standardized and developed by organizations such as 3GPP.
Cyber security and resilience
CyberSecurityThe term cyber security is often used interchangeably with the term information security. Information security involves protecting information by reducing risk and preventing failures. This includes preventing or reducing the likelihood of unauthorized/inappropriate access to data or the unlawful use, disclosure, interference, deletion, corruption, alteration, inspection, recording or deprecation of information. The goal is to ensure the protection goals of confidentiality, availability and integrity (CIA triad). Risk management is applied to identify vulnerabilities and threats to information assets and decide what countermeasures to take to reduce the risk to an acceptable level.
Resiliency is the ability of the network or system to provide and maintain an acceptable level of service despite various failures and challenges to normal operations. Cyber resilience is the ability to prepare for, respond to, and recover from cyber attacks while continuing to operate effectively. The cyber resilience life cycle starts with monitoring the network, continues with the prevention and detection of attacks and adapts different strategies.
DENM | Decentralized Environmental Notification Message
DENM (Decentralized Environmental Notification Message) is a type of message used in intelligent transportation systems to provide real-time information about environmental conditions and events. It enables vehicles and infrastructure to exchange notifications regarding road hazards, accidents, weather conditions, and more. DENM messages are distributed in a decentralized manner, allowing for efficient and rapid information dissemination. The goal is to enhance road safety, improve traffic management, and provide users with up-to-date information for efficient and safe travel.
DSRC | Dedicated Short Range Communication
DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communication) is a wireless communication technology operating in the 5.9 GHz frequency band. It enables short-range communication between vehicles and roadside infrastructure. DSRC facilitates vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication for real-time data exchange related to traffic conditions, road hazards, and other transportation information. It supports applications such as collision avoidance, adaptive cruise control, intersection safety, and emergency vehicle communication. DSRC plays a crucial role in enhancing road safety, improving traffic efficiency, and enabling advanced transportation systems.
DUC | Demo Use Cases
Demo Use Cases refer to specific scenarios or examples used to showcase the functionality and benefits of a product or system. They demonstrate how users can interact with the product in realistic situations, helping stakeholders understand its practical applications and potential value. By presenting Demo Use Cases, organizations can effectively communicate the features and potential use of their product or system to potential customers, stakeholders, or investors.
ETSI | European Telecommunications Standards Institute
ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) is an independent organization that develops and promotes standards for information and communication technologies. It sets technical specifications for various areas, including telecommunications, broadcasting, and electronic communication networks. ETSI’s standards ensure interoperability and compatibility among different systems and devices. By bringing together industry experts, ETSI drives innovation and facilitates efficient communication networks and services in Europe and globally.
FCC | Federal Communications Commission (US)
The FCC (Federal Communications Commission) is an independent agency in the United States responsible for regulating and overseeing communications. It ensures that communication services operate in the public interest, regulates licenses, allocates radio frequencies, promotes competition, and enforces consumer protection regulations. The FCC plays a significant role in telecommunications policy, broadband deployment, media ownership, public safety communications, and more. Its goal is to promote access to reliable and affordable communication services while fostering innovation and protecting consumers’ interests.
GLOSA | Green Light Optimal Speed Advisory
GLOSA (Green Light Optimal Speed Advisory) is a technology that provides drivers with recommended speeds to maximize their chances of encountering consecutive green traffic lights. It uses real-time data from traffic signals to calculate and communicate the optimal speed to drivers. By following these recommendations, drivers can potentially reduce stops and delays, improving fuel efficiency and traffic flow. GLOSA is part of Intelligent Transportation Systems and relies on vehicle-infrastructure communication for real-time guidance.
GNSS | Global navigation satellite system
GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) is a network of satellites and ground-based stations that offers positioning, navigation, and timing services globally. It enables users to determine their precise location, velocity, and time through signals transmitted from satellites. GNSS, including GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou, and NavIC, is utilized in various sectors such as transportation, surveying, timing synchronization, and agriculture. It provides global coverage and is widely used for accurate positioning and navigation worldwide.
HAP | Main Work Package
Main Work Packages contain the important milestones for the project and together form the basic structure of the project. Main work packages are self-contained and include specific tasks, objectives and deliverables. It contributes significantly to the achievement of the project’s goals and can be broken down into small sub-activities or sub-tasks.
IEEE | Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) is a global professional association that advances technology and innovation in electrical engineering, electronics, computer science, and related fields. It provides resources, networking opportunities, and technical publishing for professionals in these disciplines. The IEEE sets technical standards, organizes conferences, and publishes reputable research journals to drive advancements and promote knowledge sharing in the industry.
IF | Interface
An interface is a point of interaction or connection between different entities. It defines the rules and specifications for communication and data exchange. Interfaces enable effective interaction and interoperability between systems, components, or software modules. They establish a standardized way for entities to interact and exchange information, promoting compatibility and modularity. Interfaces are found in various domains, facilitating seamless communication and cooperation between different entities.
IoT | Internet of Things
The Internet of Things (IoT) transforms real objects into intelligent virtual objects. The IoT aims to unify everything in our world under a common infrastructure. Not only does this give us control over things around us, it also keeps us informed of the state of those things.
ITS | Intelligent Transportation System
Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) involve the application of advanced technologies and communication systems in transportation to enhance safety, efficiency, and sustainability. ITS encompasses various components, including traffic management systems, traveler information systems, intelligent vehicle systems, incident management systems, and freight management systems. These technologies leverage data analysis and real-time information to optimize traffic flow, provide traveler information, improve safety, and support efficient transportation operations. The overall goal of ITS is to utilize technology and data-driven solutions to enhance mobility, reduce congestion, minimize environmental impacts, and improve overall transportation efficiency.
KPI | Key Performance Indicator
KPI (Key Performance Indicator) is a measurable value used to assess the performance and progress of individuals, teams, departments, or organizations in achieving specific goals or objectives. KPIs provide quantifiable data to evaluate effectiveness, efficiency, and success. They are derived from strategic objectives and can be financial, operational, or marketing metrics. KPIs should be specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) and guide decision-making and improvement efforts. Regular monitoring of KPIs enables organizations to identify strengths, weaknesses, and progress towards desired outcomes.
LED | Light-emitting diode
LED (Light-emitting diode) is a semiconductor device that emits light when an electric current passes through it. It is energy-efficient, durable, and compact. LEDs have revolutionized lighting with their long lifespan, low heat emission, and lower energy consumption compared to traditional bulbs. They are used in various applications, including general lighting, automotive lighting, signage, displays, and electronic devices. LEDs also find applications in optical communication, sensors, and other electronic systems due to their small size and low power requirements.
Line-of-Sight (LOS)
Line-of-Sight (LOS) is a property of electromagnetic radiation and wireless signal transmission in which the waves can only travel along a direct line of sight from the transmitter to the receiver without obstructions. In contrast, multipath propagation, or even non-line-of-sight (NLOS), describes the propagation of electromagnetic waves that have been scattered, diffracted, reflected, or absorbed by the atmosphere and obstacles. Either the signal is received with multiple copies through different propagation paths, or the direct LOS signal is completely blocked and the signal can only be received indirectly.
LiFi | Light Fidelity or Visible Light Communication or Optical Wireless
LiFi, also known as Light Fidelity or Visible Light Communication (VLC), is a wireless communication technology that utilizes light waves for high-speed data transmission. It uses light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to encode and transmit data, which is then captured and converted back into data by specialized receivers. LiFi offers advantages such as high-speed transmission and enhanced security. However, it requires direct line-of-sight and is typically used as a complementary technology in environments where traditional wireless communication is limited.
LTE | Long Term Evolution
LTE (Long Term Evolution) is a standard for high-speed wireless communication and data transmission in mobile networks. It provides faster data rates, improved capacity, and a seamless user experience. LTE utilizes advanced techniques such as OFDMA and SC-FDMA for efficient spectrum utilization. It supports features like MIMO, VoLTE, and carrier aggregation. LTE is widely adopted globally and has paved the way for the development of advanced network technologies.
MAP | Map Data Message
A Map Data Message is a data packet or message that contains map-related information used in navigation systems, digital maps, and location-based services. It carries data such as road networks, landmarks, points of interest, and traffic information. Map Data Messages enable accurate positioning, route planning, and real-time updates for navigation and location-based functionalities.
ML | Machine Learning
Machine Learning (ML) is a subset of AI that enables computers to learn and make predictions or decisions based on data without explicit programming. It involves analyzing data, identifying patterns, and extracting insights to improve performance over time. ML algorithms include supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning. ML finds applications in image recognition, natural language processing, recommendation systems, and more. It automates processes, improves decision-making, and extracts valuable insights from data.
MQTT | MQ Telemetry Transport - Open network protocol for machine-to-machine communication
MQTT (MQ Telemetry Transport) is an open network protocol designed for Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication in IoT applications. It enables devices to publish and subscribe to messages through a broker. MQTT is lightweight and efficient, making it suitable for resource-constrained devices. It provides reliable and asynchronous communication, supports quality of service levels, and offers security features. MQTT is widely used for remote monitoring, telemetry, sensor data collection, and device control in IoT systems.
NI | National Instrument
National Instruments (NI) is a company that develops test, measurement, and control systems. Their products include hardware and software solutions used by engineers and scientists in industries such as electronics and automotive. NI is known for LabVIEW, a graphical programming language that simplifies the development of custom measurement and control systems. Their products are widely used for data analysis, automation, and testing purposes, and NI has a strong presence in the engineering and scientific community.
NR | New Radio
NR (New Radio) is the air interface or radio access technology used in 5G networks. It offers higher data rates, lower latency, increased network capacity, and improved performance compared to previous wireless generations. NR incorporates advanced techniques like OFDM and MIMO, supports new frequency bands, and features beamforming and Massive MIMO. It caters to the diverse requirements of 5G use cases and enables applications such as high-definition video streaming, IoT deployments, and mission-critical communications.
OBU | Onboard Unit
An Onboard Unit (OBU) is a device installed on a vehicle that performs specific functions and interacts with external systems. It is commonly used in transportation applications such as electronic toll collection and vehicle tracking. The OBU incorporates hardware, software, communication capabilities, and user interfaces to carry out its tasks. Its functionalities can vary depending on the application and domain.
OFDM | Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing
OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing) is a digital modulation technique used in wireless communication systems. It divides the frequency spectrum into orthogonal subcarriers to transmit data simultaneously. OFDM provides high data rates, robustness against channel impairments, and is used in Wi-Fi, LTE, and 5G NR. It employs signal processing techniques to mitigate interference between subcarriers and ensure reliable transmission.
OOK | On-OFF Keying
OOK (On-Off Keying) is a simple digital modulation technique where the presence or absence of a carrier signal represents binary symbols. It is used in applications such as remote controls, optical communications, and RFID systems. OOK is straightforward and energy-efficient but has limitations in terms of noise susceptibility and spectral efficiency.
OWC | Optical Wireless Communication
Optical Wireless Communication (OWC) is a technology that uses light signals to transmit data wirelessly. It offers high bandwidth, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and potential for secure communication. OWC is applied in various fields, including indoor wireless communication and visible light communication (VLC), for applications such as wireless Internet connectivity and smart lighting.
P2P | Point-to-Point
Point-to-Point (P2P) refers to a communication architecture where data is exchanged directly between two endpoints without intermediaries. It offers efficient and direct data transfer, increased privacy, and is used in applications like file sharing and video conferencing. P2P networks are decentralized and facilitate peer-to-peer communication.
P2MP | Point-to-Multipoint
Point-to-Multipoint (P2MP) is a communication architecture where data is transmitted from one source point to multiple destination points simultaneously. It is used when a single sender needs to communicate with multiple receivers. P2MP networks allow efficient data sharing, reduce network congestion, and are commonly used in broadcasting, video streaming, and multicast applications.
PD | Photodiode
A Photodiode (PD) is a semiconductor device that converts light into an electrical current. It is used in various applications for light sensing, optical communication, and imaging. Photodiodes detect light and generate a current proportional to the incident light intensity. They come in different types and modes of operation, each suited for specific applications.
PHY | Physical Layer
The Physical Layer (PHY) is the lowest layer in the OSI or TCP/IP models. It is responsible for the transmission and reception of raw data bits over a physical medium. The PHY defines the characteristics of the physical connection, such as voltage levels and modulation techniques. Its main function is to establish a reliable physical connection between network devices and ensure accurate data transmission.
PLS | Physical Layer Security
Physical Layer Security (PLS) is a concept in network security that focuses on protecting the physical transmission medium to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of data. It involves techniques such as signal masking, beamforming, channel estimation, and authentication/encryption to enhance overall system security. PLS recognizes the physical characteristics of the communication channel and leverages them to prevent unauthorized access and tampering with transmitted signals.
QoS | Quality of Service
Quality of Service (QoS) refers to the methods and techniques used to manage and prioritize network services to meet specific performance requirements. It involves controlling factors like bandwidth, latency, and packet loss to ensure efficient resource allocation and a satisfactory user experience. QoS mechanisms prioritize different types of network traffic based on predefined criteria and can be implemented at various layers of the network protocol stack. The goal is to prevent congestion, minimize delays, and maintain performance levels according to specified service agreements.
RAN | Radio Access Network
The Radio Access Network (RAN) is a crucial component of a mobile telecommunications system. It connects user devices to the core network through wireless communication. The RAN includes infrastructure, equipment, and protocols that facilitate radio coverage, capacity, and mobility support. It manages radio resources, coordinates signal transmission, and ensures seamless wireless connectivity. The RAN utilizes various wireless technologies and plays a vital role in providing efficient and reliable wireless communication.
RSU | Roadside Unit
A Roadside Unit (RSU) is an infrastructure component in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) that enables communication between vehicles and the roadside infrastructure. RSUs facilitate vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication, collecting data from vehicles and relaying information from the infrastructure to vehicles. They play a crucial role in traffic management, road safety, and intelligent transportation applications.
RX | Receiver
A receiver (RX) is a device or component that captures and processes incoming signals or data. It converts the received signals into a usable form by performing tasks like demodulation, decoding, filtering, and signal processing. Receivers are crucial in various fields such as telecommunications, broadcasting, and wireless communication, where they enable the retrieval and interpretation of information from transmitted signals.
SPAT | Signal Phase and Time Message
The Signal Phase and Time (SPAT) message is used in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) to provide real-time information about the timing and status of traffic signal phases at intersections. It allows connected vehicles and infrastructure components to make informed decisions based on the current traffic signal conditions. The SPAT message enhances traffic management, coordination, and safety by optimizing traffic flow and improving intersection operations.
SDR | Software-defined Radio
Software-defined Radio (SDR) is a wireless communication system that utilizes software processing to control and manipulate radio functions. It offers flexibility, reconfigurability, and adaptability by relying on software updates rather than hardware modifications. SDR systems can support multiple communication protocols and modulation schemes, making them versatile and easily upgradeable. SDR reduces development costs, improves system interoperability, and enables the creation of customizable and optimized radio solutions for various applications.
SS | Subsystems
Subsystems are individual components or modules within a larger system that perform specific functions and interact with each other. They are designed to handle specialized tasks and contribute to the overall functionality of the system. Subsystems enable modular design, efficient resource allocation, and easier maintenance and troubleshooting in complex systems.
SSB | Synchronization Signal Block
A Synchronization Signal Block (SSB) is a component of the physical layer in wireless communication systems. It consists of synchronization signals that help synchronize the timing between the transmitter and receiver and estimate the channel characteristics. The SSB includes primary synchronization signals (PSS) for coarse synchronization and secondary synchronization signals (SSS) for fine synchronization. By detecting and decoding the SSB, the receiver can align itself with the transmitted signal and establish a reliable communication link. The specific structure and parameters of the SSB vary depending on the wireless communication standard or system being used.
SSH | Secure Shell
Secure Shell (SSH) is a cryptographic network protocol that enables secure remote access to systems over unsecured networks. It provides encrypted communication, user authentication, and remote administration capabilities. SSH ensures the confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity of data transmitted between the client and server. It is widely used for secure remote management of servers and devices across different operating systems.
TG | Task Group
A Task Group (TG) is a specialized team formed within an organization or project to address specific objectives or tasks. It brings together individuals with relevant expertise to collaborate on a particular assignment. Task Groups have designated leaders and members with defined roles and responsibilities. They work collectively to accomplish specific goals within a specified timeframe. Task Groups are commonly used in various industries and sectors to optimize productivity and achieve desired outcomes.
TR | Technical report
A Technical Report (TR) is a document prepared by experts or researchers that provides detailed information, analysis, or findings on a specific technical topic. It serves as a valuable source of technical knowledge and insights, covering a wide range of subjects. Technical Reports are used to document research studies, experiments, investigations, or evaluations, and are commonly utilized in academia, research institutions, and industries. They inform decision-making processes, facilitate collaboration, and contribute to the overall body of knowledge in a particular field.
TX | Transmitter
A transmitter (TX) is a device that generates and sends signals or data over a communication channel. It modulates the input signal onto a carrier wave and amplifies it for transmission. Transmitters are crucial in various communication systems to ensure reliable and efficient transmission of information.
UC | Use Case
A Use Case (UC) is a technique used in software development and project management to document the functional requirements of a system or application. It describes specific scenarios and interactions between actors and the system to achieve specific goals. Use Cases help in clarifying requirements, facilitating communication among stakeholders, and serve as a foundation for system design and testing.
UE | User Equipment
User Equipment (UE) refers to the end-user devices used in telecommunications and wireless communication systems. Examples include smartphones, tablets, and laptops. UEs establish wireless connections with network infrastructure and enable users to access communication services such as voice calls and data transfer. They play a vital role in facilitating communication between users and the network.
USRP | Univeral Software Radio Peripheral
The Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP) is a hardware platform used in software-defined radio (SDR) systems. It consists of a motherboard and interchangeable RF front-end daughterboards. The USRP can be controlled and programmed through software, enabling users to develop custom applications for manipulating and processing radio signals. It is widely used in wireless communication research, prototyping, and experimentation.
V2I | Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Communications
Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Communications (V2I) refers to the exchange of information between vehicles and infrastructure elements in intelligent transportation systems. It enables vehicles to communicate with traffic signals, road signs, and other roadside units. V2I improves road safety, traffic efficiency, and transportation management by providing real-time data about traffic conditions and road hazards. It utilizes wireless communication technologies like DSRC and C-V2X to facilitate seamless integration between vehicles and infrastructure. V2I supports advanced driver assistance systems and helps optimize route planning for a better driving experience.
V2P | Vehicle-to-Pedestrian
Vehicle-to-Pedestrian (V2P) communication refers to the exchange of information between vehicles and pedestrians in intelligent transportation systems. It enhances pedestrian safety by enabling early warnings and alerts to both parties, reducing the risk of accidents. V2P utilizes technologies such as vehicle sensors and pedestrian detection systems to detect pedestrians and facilitate communication. It can occur through channels like DSRC or cellular connectivity, providing visual or auditory cues to pedestrians. V2P holds great potential for improving road awareness and reducing accidents in urban environments with heavy pedestrian traffic.
V2V | Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications
Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communications involve the direct exchange of information between vehicles in intelligent transportation systems. It enables vehicles to share real-time data such as position, speed, and direction, enhancing situational awareness and enabling advanced safety applications. V2V communications utilize wireless technologies like DSRC or C-V2X and support applications like collision avoidance and cooperative driving. The benefits of V2V include early hazard warnings, improved traffic flow, and enhanced cooperative driving. Overall, V2V communications aim to improve safety, efficiency, and driving experience by facilitating direct communication between vehicles on the road.
V2X | Cellular Vehicular-to-Everything Communications
V2X (Cellular Vehicular-to-Everything) Communications refers to the exchange of information between vehicles and different elements in the environment using cellular technology. It enables vehicles to communicate with other vehicles, infrastructure components, pedestrians, and cloud-based services. V2X facilitates real-time data exchange, warnings, and alerts to enhance safety, efficiency, and overall transportation system performance. It encompasses V2V, V2I, V2P, and other forms of vehicle-to-everything communication. V2X utilizes cellular networks for wide coverage and scalability, allowing for advanced safety applications and optimized traffic management.

VANET | Vehicular Ad hoc Network
Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) is a wireless network where vehicles communicate with each other and with roadside infrastructure. It enables vehicles to form temporary networks and exchange information without relying on fixed infrastructure. VANETs use technologies like DSRC or C-V2X for direct vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication. They support applications like collision avoidance and traffic management. VANETs face challenges in connectivity, reliability, and security. They are crucial for intelligent transportation systems and the development of connected and autonomous vehicles.
VLC | Visible Light Communication
Visible Light Communication (VLC) is a wireless communication technology that uses visible light for data transmission. It encodes data onto light signals emitted by LEDs and decodes them using light-sensitive devices. VLC offers high data rates and can be used in applications where traditional wireless technologies are restricted. However, it requires a direct line of sight and has limited range.